Dating of paleolakes in the central altiplano of bolivia
Specimens were collected in shallow waters by hand, in depths of up to 4 m by snorkeling and in depths of up to 38 m by boat using a small triangular dredge, and preserved in 70–80% ethanol.Snails were identified to species and subspecies based on original taxonomic descriptions and published keys (D’Orbigny 1835; Bavay 1904; Pilsbry 1924; Biese 1944, 1947; Haas 1955, 1957; Blume 1958; Dejoux 1992).The endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying primarily intralacustrine speciation.Moreover, the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca, lakes Cabana and Ballivián, is congruent.
Forward and reverse primers for PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were LCO1490 (Folmer et al.
Our study is based on hierarchical sampling that included (1) eight Collection and locality data (latitude, longitude, and elevation in parentheses), locality code, DNA voucher number (UGSB collection), and Gen Bank accession numbers for specimens analyzed in this study.
Information on outgroup species is given in the was sampled in the Altiplano and nearby sites during April–July 2007, October–December 2009, and January 2010.
Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Titicaca/Altiplano Heleobia fauna (together with few extralimital taxa) forms a species flock.
A molecular clock analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor (MRCAs) of the Altiplano taxa evolved 0.53 (0.28-0.80) My ago and the MRCAs of the Altiplano taxa and their extralimital sister group 0.92 (0.46-1.52) My ago.
Search for dating of paleolakes in the central altiplano of bolivia:
Furthermore, given that Lake Titicaca differs from most, if not all other ancient lakes in its physical and biotic features, this study may help identify the unifying patterns and processes in world-wide ancient lakes that, in general, can explain their often outstanding degree of biodiversity.; also see Hershler and Thompson 1992).