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Countries may filter sensitive content on an ongoing basis and/or introduce temporary filtering during key time periods such as elections.In some cases the censoring authorities may surreptitiously block content to mislead the public into believing that censorship has not been applied.In a 2012 Internet Society survey 71% of respondents agreed that "censorship should exist in some form on the Internet".In the same survey 83% agreed that "access to the Internet should be considered a basic human right" and 86% agreed that "freedom of expression should be guaranteed on the Internet".Among the most popular filtering software programs is Smart Filter by Secure Computing in California, which was bought by Mc Afee in 2008.Smart Filter has been used by Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, the UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain, Iran, and Oman, as well as the United States and the UK.Blacklists may be produced manually or automatically and are often not available to non-customers of the blocking software.Blocking or filtering can be done at a centralized national level, at a decentralized sub-national level, or at an institutional level, for example in libraries, universities or Internet cafes.
Technologically savvy users can often find ways to access blocked content.
Organizations such as the Global Network Initiative, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Amnesty International, and the American Civil Liberties Union have successfully lobbied some vendors such as Websense to make changes to their software, to refrain from doing business with repressive governments, and to educate schools who have inadvertently reconfigured their filtering software too strictly.
Nevertheless, regulations and accountability related to the use of commercial filters and services are often non-existent, and there is relatively little oversight from civil society or other independent groups.
On 12 March 2013 in a Special report on Internet Surveillance, Reporters Without Borders named five "Corporate Enemies of the Internet": Amesys (France), Blue Coat Systems (U.
S.), Gamma (UK and Germany), Hacking Team (Italy), and Trovicor (Germany).