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The exact prevalence is unknown but is estimated to be between 2% and 14%.There are many health conditions associated with obstructive sleep apnea, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and depression.Screening is not recommended by major organizations, including the U. In one study, 97% of patients with a positive polysomnography result reported being elbowed by their bed partner because of snoring or apneic episodes.30In addition to large neck circumference and high body mass index, factors predictive of OSA include posterior chin position (retrognathia), reduced distance and increased angles from the chin to the thyroid cartilage, and a narrow oropharyngeal opening.611Sleep studies performed in a sleep laboratory or in the home can quantify the apnea-hypopnea index, which is required to diagnose OSA. Apnea is a complete obstruction of airflow, and hypopnea is a partial obstruction of airflow; both must last a minimum of 10 seconds. Health outcomes of continuous positive airway pressure versus oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial. These tests are more accurate in identifying patients with a higher pretest probability of OSA and can rule out OSA in low-risk patients.2334 Home sleep apnea tests are not recommended in patients with comorbidities such as congestive heart failure, chronic lung disease, or neurologic conditions because they have not been verified in these populations.4Obesity results in fatty deposits around the neck, which contribute to pharyngeal collapse.35 Although a decrease in weight has been shown to decrease critical closing pressures of the airway, there are inconsistent findings on the association between weight reduction and overall improvement in sleep and breathing patterns.36 Studies have shown that sleeping in the supine position compared with the lateral position may double the apnea-hypopnea index in patients with OSA. Clinical guidelines for the use of unattended portable monitors in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients. Gay P, Weaver T, Loube D, Iber C; Positive Airway Pressure Task Force; Standards of Practice Committee; American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
A recent meta-analysis demonstrated similar rates of blood pressure lowering between continuous positive airway pressure and mandibular advancement devices.
An apnea-hypopnea index of 15 or more events per hour, or five or more events per hour in the presence of symptoms or cardiovascular comorbidities, is diagnostic for OSA 24 A full-night study is generally indicated for diagnosis, with a follow-up study used for positive airway pressure titration; however, a split-night study, in which diagnosis and positive airway pressure titration occur in the same night, can also be performed.6In general, home sleep apnea tests are considered to be less accurate than type-I studies because of data loss from detached or malfunctioning monitoring equipment.32 Additionally, home monitors with fewer channels cannot discern between sleep and wakefulness, and therefore can only estimate an apnea-hypopnea index.
Home sleep apnea tests can be an alternative to type-I studies in patients who are unable to present to a sleep laboratory. Educational, supportive and behavioural interventions to improve usage of continuous positive airway pressure machines in adults with obstructive sleep apnoea.
The diagnostic standard for obstructive sleep apnea is nocturnal polysomnography in a sleep laboratory.
Home sleep apnea tests can be performed for certain patients but are generally considered less accurate.